One of the frequent doubts that arise when we enter the world of electric mobility is the time it takes for an electric car to charge. It is impossible to speak of a single charging time for an electric vehicle, infact, three main speeds are recognized: slow, semi-fast, and fast charging. How long does it take to charge an electric car? To define the time in an estimated and intermediate way, it is noted that those who take less time need at least 15 minutes, while others can reach 8 hours. Different conditions include and define this time value, these are different for each vehicle and the various charging points. Next, we will give you the answer.
I. How to Calculate EV Charging Time?
To calculate the recharging time of an electric vehicle, it is necessary to know, on the one hand, the recharging intensity or power of our charger and, on the other hand, the capacity of our vehicle’s batteries.
What is Battery Capacity?
To find out the capacity of the batteries of our electric vehicle, we must have the technical sheet of our car, where the battery capacity is indicated. Usually, this data is presented in kWh.
We have to multiply that capacity by 1000 and then perform the following operation:
Duration = Battery capacity / power
What is Charging Power?
Charging power depends on the model, obviously, but it will end up showing you how fast you will load it. The charging power depends on many factors, such as the power of the charging point, the outside temperature, the temperature and condition of the battery, and the cable with which it is connected.
Calculate EV Charging Time
Our charger’s recharge intensity or power can be known by applying a formula, which will be different depending on whether it is a single-phase or three-phase.
In the case of being single-phase, the power is calculated as follows:
P=Current x Voltage
If the charger is three-phase, we will use the following formula:
P=1.73 x Current x Voltage
The result will be Watts (W)
II. What is Top-up Charging?
Top-up charging is when any driver plugs in their EV for charging every time he parks his car, such as overnight charging at home or going out for shopping or at their workstations or gyms.
Instead of waiting for the battery to get empty or letting it charge fully, car drivers use every spare time of parking to keep the battery topped up.
Workplace and public charging stations are only limited from 7kW to 22kW, making them perfect for top-up charging. This is an efficient way to make your EV always ready to go.
III. What Factors Affect Charging Time?
The battery and its size are crucial to understanding why some vehicles take longer to charge than others. It is prominent and easy to understand why a larger battery – with more capacity – lasts longer and requires fewer recharges. Still, it will take longer to return to 100 percent once it is depleted.
Battery Status (empty vs. full):
The battery’s state of charge is also essential when calculating the charging time, and it will have to be taken into account to know how long it will take to have the maximum charge. A fully discharged battery will take much longer to recover than the half full one.
Type of Charging cable:
The main connection cable used can also delay the process if it admits less power than that supplied by the charger. It is a widespread mistake to connect batteries to the network using an inadequate cable, prolonging the charge unnecessarily.
Max charging rate of vehicle:
The charging time of any EV also depends on its capacity and efficiency. Different models have different charging times because of their engine power.
Max charging rate of ChargePoint:
The charging Point with which the battery is charged can range from a simple domestic plug (2 kW) to that of the most potent public superchargers (350 kW). Other charging power solutions include walbox-type domestic chargers (from 3.45 to 22 kW) or the most common fast public chargers (from 43 kW).
Extreme temperatures can also alter regular charging times. When charging when it is freezing, the process slows down as the modules’ electrical resistance that makes up the battery increases. And in the opposite case, the charging system itself interrupts the transfer of energy when, in conditions of intense heat, it detects that the temperature exceeds certain safety limits.
IV. How often do you need to Charge Your Electric Car?
It depends on the model of the Electric Car, the charger of your driving car. In general, 2 – 3 times a week is enough to charge an EV. If your EV usage is daily and has a smart charge, then you can charge your car at night. This habit will always keep your EV fully charged and also reduce charging costs by up to 50%.
V. How Much Range do you Get per Hour of Charging?
The quantity of range an electric vehicle can give you in one hour of charging varies with the type of charger you are using and the EV you are driving. Such as, if you have the trendiest EV, the Nissan LEAF. We can calculate its range by following steps.
The highest power of its battery is 40kWh and its full driving range is 270km. If you used a level 2 EV charger that delivers up to 22kW of power, it would yet only be as quick as the Nissan LEAFs onboard EV charger which is only 6.6kW.
This charger will charge the Nissan LEAF in 6 hours to its full capacity. So, to find out the range per hour, you need to divide 270 by 6 which results in 45km per hour of charging.
All in all, the green technology that has been developed in recent years has brought about a revolution in the charging times of an electric cars. Now you don’t need to hesitate if you think that the infrastructure of recharging points is poor, or because of issues such as recharging times, battery types, cables, connectors, etc. because it is not true anymore. As you have seen, the charging time of the electric car depends on several factors that allow our EV to be charged in just 5 minutes or up to 20 hours.